Treatment of patch infection after carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review

Tim M. Wikkeling, Senne A. van Gijssel, Maarten J. van der Laan, Clark J. Zeebregts, Ben R. Saleem*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutputpeer review

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Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with patch angioplasty is a widely used method for treating carotid artery stenosis. Patch infections are extremely rare, but the consequences may be serious. The current gold standard for treatment is patch excision and reconstruction with autologous material. However, no consensus has been reached and other options may be valuable as well in certain cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the various treatment options for carotid patch infection after CEA with patch angioplasty on the basis of their outcomes (reinfection, ischemic stroke, and infection-related mortality). This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE were searched. Case series and case reports were included. Studies in languages other than English were excluded. Patients who developed a post-operative patch infection of CEA with patch angioplasty were included. Angioplasty could be performed with any type of patch. Patch infection needed to be confirmed by clinical presentation in combination with imaging, culture, or during the operation. The primary outcome measures were reinfection, ischemic stroke, and infection-related mortality. Eleven retrospective case series, two prospective case series, and seventeen case reports were included. The study size was 165 patients (mean age 69.7 years, M/F ratio 1.75:1). One hundred and seventy-one patches developed a patch infection after CEA with patch angioplasty and needed treatment. Treatment strategies included conservative treatment (14.0%), endovascular treatment (4.7%), and open surgery (81.4%). Mean follow-up was 34.8 months and extended up to 180 months. Reinfection rate was 4.7%, ischemic stroke rate 5.8%, and infection-related mortality rate 2.3%. No statistical comparison between treatment options could be performed, because of the heterogeneity of the included studies. Autologous material should be the primary choice of treatment if patch infection is diagnosed after CEA with patch angioplasty. In emergency situations, endovascular treatment, carotid ligation, or abscess drainage could be considered. Endovascular treatment and abscess drainage are temporary solutions. After the patient has recovered sufficiently, a more durable treatment i.e., open surgery is advised. Endo vacuum assisted closure (EndoVAC) seems to be promising. Further research is needed to determine the applicability of each treatment option.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's14
TijdschriftAnnals of Translational Medicine
Nummer van het tijdschrift14
StatusPublished - jul.-2021

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