Treatment of the extracranial carotid artery in tandem lesions during endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Endovascular treatment (EVT) is the standard treatment for patients with an acute ischemic stroke due to occlusion of large vessel occlusion (LVO). In 20% of patients, concomitant extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) lesion is present. These tandem lesions (TL) offer a technical challenge. The treatment strategy for the treatment of the ipsilateral EICA is unclear. The aim of this review is to compare two treatment strategies for TL during EVT: balloon angioplasty (BA) only and immediate carotid artery stenting (iCAS). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Data for each included study was extracted. For comparative studies a meta-analysis was performed. Functional outcome was expressed with the modified Rankin scale and safety endpoints were mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). A total of 72 full text articles evaluating treatment of TL during EVT were screened. Sixteen iCAS and five comparative studies were included for meta-analysis. 53% of patients undergoing iCAS during EVT had good functional outcome in comparison to 45% of patients who underwent only BA. Mortality was comparable at 16% for both groups. The incidences of sICH were 8% and 4% for iCAS and BA respectively. In the meta-analysis, iCAS was associated with good functional outcome, with no significant differences in mortality and sICH with compared to BA. This study shows that treatment with iCAS of a simultaneously ipsilateral EICA lesion during EVT is associated with a favorable functional outcome compared to BA only with no significant difference in mortality or sICH. No conclusion could be drawn about the intracranial or extracranial first approach due to scarce of data. More studies are needed to determine long-term neurological outcomes, the necessity of re-interventions and optimal technical approach (intracranial or extracranial first).

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's14
TijdschriftTranslational Research
Nummer van het tijdschrift19
StatusPublished - 2020

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