Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular permeability and plasma leakage are characteristic features of severe dengue and sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying these immune-pathologies remain unclear. The risk of severe dengue and sepsis development depend on patient-related and pathogen-related factors. Additionally, comorbidities increase the risk of severe disease and their incidence hampers correct diagnosis and treatments. To date, there is no efficient therapy to combat severe dengue and sepsis. Here, we discuss the differences and similarities between the pathogenesis of severe dengue and that of bacterial sepsis. We identify gaps in knowledge that need to be better understood in order to move towards the rational development and/or usage of therapeutic strategies to ameliorate severe dengue disease.