Epidemiologic studies have linked urinary oxalate excretion to risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to investigate whether urinary oxalate, in stable kidney transplant recipients (KTR), is prospectively associated with risk of graft failure. In secondary analyses we evaluated the association with post-transplantation diabetes mellitus, all-cause mortality and specific causes of death. Oxalate excretion was measured in 24-h urine collection samples in a cohort of 683 KTR with a functioning allograft >= 1 year. Mean eGFR was 52 +/- 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Median (interquartile range) urinary oxalate excretion was 505 (347-732) mu mol/24-h in women and 519 (396-736) mu mol/24-h in men (p = 0.08), with 302 patients (44% of the study population) above normal limits (hyperoxaluria). A consistent and independent inverse association was found with all-cause mortality (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94, p = 0.01). Cause-specific survival analyses showed that this association was mainly driven by an inverse association with mortality due to infection (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.83, p = 0.004), which remained materially unchanged after performing sensitivity analyses. Twenty-four-hour urinary oxalate excretion did not associate with risk of graft failure, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular mortality, mortality due to malignancies or mortality due to miscellaneous causes. In conclusion, in KTR, 24-h urinary oxalate excretion is elevated in 44% of KTR and inversely associated with mortality due to infectious causes.