Objectives Assessment of thoracic aortic dimensions with non-ECG-triggered contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is accompanied with motion artefacts and requires gadolinium. To avoid both motion artefacts and gadolinium administration, we evaluated the similarity and reproducibility of dimensions measured on ECG-triggered, balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRA as alternative to CE-MRA. Methods All patients, with varying medical conditions, referred for thoracic aortic examination between September 2016 and March 2018, who underwent non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (1.5 T) were retrospectively included (n = 30). Aortic dimensions were measured after double-oblique multiplanar reconstruction by two observers at nine landmarks predefined by literature guidelines. Image quality was scored at the sinus of Valsalva, mid-ascending aorta and mid-descending aorta by semi-automatically assessing the vessel sharpness. Results Aortic dimensions showed high agreement between non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (r = 0.99, p <0.05) without overestimation or underestimation of aortic dimensions in SSFP-MRA (mean difference, 0.1 mm; limits of agreement, - 1.9 mm and 1.9 mm). Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were significantly smaller with SSFP-MRA for the sinus of Valsalva and sinotubular junction. Image quality of the sinus of Valsalva was significantly better with SSFP-MRA, as fewer images were of impaired quality (3/30) than in CE-MRA (21/30). Reproducibility of dimensions was significantly better in images scored as good quality compared to impaired quality in both sequences. Conclusions Thoracic aortic dimensions measured on SSFP-MRA and non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA were similar. As expected, SSFP-MRA showed better reproducibility close to the aortic root because of lesser motion artefacts, making it a feasible non-contrast imaging alternative.