We adopt a relational approach to examine the effects of social relations and formal structure on who speaks up to whom about problems at work. Data were collected in a two-wave employee survey in three Dutch preschools. Using exponential random graph modeling, we found significant positive effects of formal structure (recipient's hierarchical level; team co-membership) and good relations between speaker and recipient on the likelihood of voice in a dyad. Speaker's hierarchical level had positive effects. significant in Wave 1. Speaker's degree centrality significantly reduced the likelihood of voice, whereas recipient's degree centrality had no effect. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.